Home Health Can a Plant-Based Diet Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk?

Can a Plant-Based Diet Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk?

by News7

TOPLINE:Greater adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) among middle-aged US adults. Greater intake of healthful plant foods, rather than lower intake of non-red meat animal foods, was the main factor underlying the inverse associations.

METHODOLOGY:The study population was 11,965 adults aged 45-64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who didn’t have diabetes at baseline and who completed food-frequency questionnaires.Plant-based diet adherence was classified overall with the plant-based diet index (PDI) and also with higher healthful PDI (hPDI) and higher unhealthful PDI (uPDI) indexes.TAKEAWAY:Mean daily total plant and animal food intakes for the highest quintile (5) were 15.1 and 3.4 servings per day, respectively, whereas average consumption for the lowest quintile (1) was 9.9 and 5.8 servings per day, respectively.During a median 22 years’ follow-up, 35% (n=4208) of the participants developed T2D.After controlling for age, sex, race center, energy intake, education, income, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and margarine intake, those in PDI quintile 5 had a significantly lower risk of developing T2D than in quintile 1 (hazard ratio, 0.89; P=.01).As a continuous score, each 10-point higher PDI score was associated with a significant 6% lower risk for T2D (P=.01).Higher hPDI scores were also inversely associated with T2D risk (hazard ratio, 0.85 for quintiles 5 vs 1; P <.001 adjustments="" and="" associated="" diabetes="" each="" higher="" not="" of="" p="" per="" regardless="" risk="" scores="" significantly="" units="" updi="" were="" with=""> .05).Associations between plant-based diet scores and diabetes did not differ by sex, age, race, or body mass index (BMI) after accounting for multiple comparisons (all Pinteraction> .05).Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the associations between overall and healthy plant-based diets and diabetes risk, suggesting that lower adiposity may partly explain the favorable association.IN PRACTICE:”Emphasizing plant foods may be an effective dietary strategy to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes.”

SOURCE:The study conducted by Valerie K. Sullivan, PhD, RD, of the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and colleagues was published online in Diabetes Care.

LIMITATIONS:The limitations were self-reported dietary intake, diets assessed decades ago, possible food misclassification, possible selection bias, and residual confounding.

DISCLOSURES:The ARIC study was funded by the US National Institutes of Health. The authors had no further disclosures.

Miriam E. Tucker is a freelance journalist based in the Washington, DC, area. She is a regular contributor to Medscape, with other work appearing in the Washington Post, NPR’s Shots blog, and Diabetes Forecast magazine. She is on X (formerly known as Twitter) @MiriamETucker. 

Source : Medscape

You may also like